High temperature composite materials, which include ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), carbon-carbon and polyimide composites, will be essential for future space vehicles that will ultimately contribute to NASA’s mission to Mars as well as for the next generation of gas turbine engines. CMCs, for example, will be used as thermal protection and control surfaces on future hypersonic vehicles. Indeed, carbon-carbon has already been used in these applications on the space shuttle and on DARPA’s Falcon hypersonic test vehicle. In addition, CMCs are currently being used as turbine shrouds for General Electric’s gas turbine engines. Future gas turbine engines will also incorporate CMC combustor liners and vanes. While these materials are enabling for future aerospace vehicles, they are also prone to brittle failure. As a result, damage detection and life prediction will play a vital role in system safety and reliability. The vision of this project is to enable health monitoring capability for high temperature composites, in order to ensure the safe and reliable utilization of these materials in future aerospace vehicles. The goal is to improve safety and reliability of high temperature (carbon‐carbon and polyimide) composite components for the next generation of aerospace vehicles.