The innovation in this proposed effort is the development of lightweight, non-eroding nozzle materials for use in propulsion systems. Lightweight structures are desirable for space transportation vehicle systems in order to reduce launch costs, increase mission flexibility/efficiency, and add robustness with respect to the ability to add weight or additional materials to the mission with minimum sacrifice in performance. The use of non-eroding materials, coupled with lightweight materials, as rocket nozzles can further increase mission flexibility by allowing an increase in performance, higher maximum temperatures, greater speeds, greater range, bigger payloads, and longer lifetimes. The higher maximum temperatures may eliminate the need for cooling air, while simultaneously increasing engine efficiency. Higher maximum use temperature additionally allows for increased stagnation temperatures and pressures, increasing the propellant enthalpy, which, in return, can significantly increase the velocity and performance of the projectile. These benefits result in increased fuel savings. The advanced materials study will include monolithic ceramics, refractory metals, and high temperature ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials. The manufacturing processes for the monolithic ceramics and refractory metal materials will include hot isostatic processing (HIP), vacuum plasma spraying (VPS), electrodeposition. The CMC fabrication processes will include braiding, filament winding, tape wrapping, and involute layup.