Sample Preparation for DNA Sequencing Initially, this application can be accomplished in the micro-gravity/zero gravity environment on the ISS. Eventually, the product can be utilized to identify the basic elements of DNA on non-terrestrial surfaces. DNA sample preparation is required every time DNA is to be sequenced. There are multiple steps involved in the preparation of DNA for sequencing. These steps are typically completed by different instruments from different companies. However, there are a few key basic processes that are necessary, namely lysing, shearing, mixing and heating, all of which can be executed using Microsonics technology. Obviously, the compact requirements of the ISS make the flexibility and dynamic nature of this potential instrument ideal. More specific applications: Sample prep for chemical analysis, protein synthesis & protein crystallography, DNA Fragmentation, Cell Lysis, Mixing and Resolubilization of compounds in solutions and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Simulation of different gravitational environments - Through the modification of the centrifugal forces, all of the sample preparation steps mentioned above can be accomplished while simulating different gravitation environments such as the moon, Mars, Jupiter, etc. Sonoporation - The device should be able to sonically modify the permeability of the cell plasma membrane. The goal would be to allow the uptake of large particles, such as DNA, into the cell. As the target of the Micro-Gravity Sample Preparation System is to provide the research scientists working on the ISS the same capabilities that they would have in a terrestrial laboratory, many of the Non-NASA commercial applications are the same as the NASA applications. While it is clear that when placing the instrument in a terrestrial lab, the same gravitational constraints would not exist, the universal nature of the centrifugal process lends the product to being similarly utilized.