NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) encompasses research in the areas of Astrophysics, Earth Science, Heliophysics, and Planetary Science. A major objective of SMD instrument development programs is to implement science measurement capabilities with smaller or more affordable spacecraft so development programs can meet multiple mission needs and therefore make the best use of limited resources. This proposed 1.55 micron single frequency high energy and high peak power fiber amplifier can be used as innovative lidar component for measurements of the atmosphere and gas content of the Earth, Mars, the Moon, and other planetary bodies. Because it is fiber based, this single frequency amplifier is compact, efficient, and extremely reliable. There are a number of potential non-NASA commercial applications for 1.55 micron single frequency high energy and high peak power fiber amplifier. This eye-safe laser source can be used to build commercial lidar for ranging and gas monitoring applications, be used as the light source for optical sensing, fast scanning biomedical imaging, and scientific research.