The fact that the PEM fuel cells containing the conductive water removal membrane (CWRM) will significantly simplify PEMFC operation (and result in both higher and safer performance) makes it very attractive for a wide variety of non-NASA Commercial applications. In the near-term, its unique passive operation and exceptional stability makes it ideal for powering remote applications like monitors and sensors, which require very high reliability. Following scale-up and optimization, the CWRM with ElectroChem's IFF concept, applied to the regenerative fuel cell, will be able to meet the growing needs for reliable, non-polluting Uninterruptible Power Systems (in the range of 4-8 kW). And, following further development, the IFF will be able to replace conventional PEMFC systems in satisfying the special requirements of transportation applications, including passenger cars (50 kW and up). On a system level basis, the CWRM supports ElectroChem's ultimate objective to manufacture and market a PEM Fuel Cell/Electrolyzer power plant, ECcell, that performs well in a totally passive, non-flow-through mode. The development of a Conductive Water Removal Membrane (CWRM) will enable PEM Fuel Cells to operate passively at high current densities. In the near term, this will enable NASA to meet its critical need for Lunar-type-Rovers (approximately 50-500W) over the next ten years. When the time comes, the PEM Fuel cells containing the CWRM will be ready to meet NASA's need for a replacement fuel cell power plant (approximately 15 kW) for the successor to the Shuttle. And after NASA returns to the Moon and establishes a permanent presence there, it will have a need for a power system (approximately 25kW) that can reliably meet the Moon's 14+ day-long and 14+ night-long unique requirements. The PEM Fuel Cell containing the CWRM has the potential of meeting this future critical NASA need via a Regenerative Fuel Cell.