This SBIR is developing high-efficiency, high beam-quality Nd lasers and non-linear wavelength conversion technologies suitable for ozone, aerosol, oxygen, CO2, water vapor and wind lidar. The advanced solid-state laser technology proposed directly supports NASA Earth Science Decadal Study programs for aerosols and clouds (ACE), global wind (3D-Winds) and advanced multi-beam altimetry and vegetation canopy missions (DESDynI, LIST). We propose to increase the wall-plug efficiency of fieldable 1um lasers from 4-6% into the 12-16% range, drastically reducing the electrical power needed for satellite missions. For the same satellite bus this means that power will be available to support another lidar system, radar or other instruments - greatly increasing the science mission value. The closely related non-linear wavelength conversion technology can also enable direct range-resolved CO2 measurement and/or oxygen lidars that support CO2 pressure and density determinations. The technology developed will also support sub-orbital flight missions for ozone, water vapor, and High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HRSL) systems for advanced aerosol measurements.