High throughput, fast detection and characterization of organic and inorganic materials have become important challenge for future planetary robotic rover exploration and planetary missions. Crystal Research, Inc. (CRI) proposes to develop a compact resonance-enhanced Raman spectral sensor that can provide highly sensitive remote detection and in situ characterization of geological materials. Through resonance-enhanced Raman scattering by exciting samples deep in the UV region, we can enhance Raman signal intensities by a factor of 1 million or more compared with conventional Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, the proposed instrument is operated in a spectral region that is free of fluorescence interference. Recent advances in highly efficient diode pumped true CW UV laser using a novel mixed laser crystal at CRI makes the development of such a miniaturized sensor system feasible. The proposed instrument is a miniature, low-power stand-off sensor, ideal for future NASA in situ explorations. In Phase I, we will develop all required building blocks and perform proof-of-concept demonstration. The Phase II research will be focused on the design, fabrication and characterization of a working prototype for NASA evaluations.