Neutral atom detector foils and particle detector foils The graphene foils we report in Phase I have excellent energy resolution and low energy signal compared with existing foils.We have shown prototype grids which appear suitable for supporting bilayer graphene in an instrument-usable configuration. Graphene antistatic and emissive coatings on particle beam and EUV filters Present antistatic coatings and contamination blocking filter coatings are made from >5nm thick amorphous carbon. Graphene has higher conductivity than amorphous carbon, but is only 0.3nm thick. This represents a considerable improvement in electron scattering cross section, thermal emissivity, and mass density. Nanohole arrays for EUV filters Presently the wavelength range 50-120nm has no viable narrow-band filter. Imaging of EUV spectral lines needs wavelength-selectable bandpass filters. Availability of solar-blind bandpass EUV filters will enable imaging of, for instance, elemental plasma processes in planetary atmospheres. Miscellaneous Instrument Graphene Foils Cooled instruments require a membrane to separate environmental contaminants without otherwise affecting detection or beam optics. For example, cryodetectors, such as X-ray microcalorimeters, require contamination blocking elements to prevent UHV or spacecraft contaminants from adsorbing onto the detector and causing soft X-ray opacity. Currently, these barrier foils are 50nm-100nm thick.
Nanohole arrays for EUV filters and High-Harmonic-Laser Order Selectors Presently the wavelength range 50-120nm has no viable transmission filters except for broad-band elemental In and Sn foils. Detection of spectral lines, and generation of laser lines, needs wavelength-selectable bandpass filters in this wavelength range. Synchrotrons and Free-electron lasers rely on the elemental properties of foils for harmonic rejection, greatly limiting the utility of synchrotrons in the 50-120nm wavelength range. The proposed nanohole arrays can improve the selectability and performance of spectral filters in this range of wavelengths. Miscellaneous Instrument Graphene Foils Instruments such as X-ray microcalorimeters and electron beam systems, require a membrane to separate environmental contaminants without otherwise affecting detection or beam optics. For example, cryogenic detectors, such as X-ray microcalorimeters, require contamination blocking elements to prevent UHV or spacecraft background contaminants from adsorbing onto the detector and causing soft X-ray opacity. Currently, these barrier foils are 50nm-100nm in thickness, and are highly absorbing for X-rays <300eV. Graphene is a promising low mass contamination barrier, since is less than 1nm thick.