The proposed extended lateral range profiler can significantly improve the production of large and small optics for many DOD and commercial projects in the same ways it can for NASA projects. Applications include large optics for telescope mirrors, super-smooth surfaces for x-ray, synchrotron, DUV and EUV optics. In addition, the proposed profiler has many applications beyond optics production including precision machined surfaces in the medical and automotive industries, and engineered surfaces in the semiconductor, electronics, data storage, MEMS, MOEMS and display industries. The proposed on-tool measurement could reduce polishing time and improve surface quality of large and small optics with profiles from flat to aspheric. Potential NASA applications include all major telescope projects where large precision optics are required such as JDEM, LSST, GMT, TMT and ICEsat. The sensor can dramatically improve process control for the manufacture of large telescope optics by removing the need for replication and or contact metrology, which can damage surfaces. It can also improve the manufacture of super-smooth optical surfaces, which are needed to achieve ultra-low scattering in projects such as WFIRST, LIGO, and LISA, by providing rapid, high resolution measurement over a wide spatial frequency range. This type of measurement can also aid the manufacturing of aspheric and freeform optical components made with computer-controlled machines, in projects such as IXO and other x-ray telescopes.