Intelligent Automation, Inc. proposes a robust SA architecture that uses integrated airborne and ground-based SA concepts such that SA functions are switched between airborne or ground-based activity as the system monitors traffic, network characteristics such as data drop rates and latency, and time to Loss of Separation (LOS). The uniqueness of an integrated air-ground SA concept is that the SA functional roles are changed between the SA stakeholders (i.e., ATC, Pilot and service providers) to maintain robustness of the SA performance under degraded network conditions. The proposed SA architecture consists of a Network and SA Performance Metric Monitor (PMM), which monitors short-horizon performance metrics of the network and the currently used SA concept. It also consists of an Air-Ground Concept Manager (AGCM), which decides if one or multiple SA concepts are to be applied in a given airspace (i.e., center, flow corridor or transition airspace) based on the observed and estimated network and SA performance metrics. The proposed mechanism consists of dividing airspace into SA sectors, where SA activity in each sector is managed based on a single SA concept. The approach delineates the SA functions or roles between the stakeholders for each SA sector and addresses the transfer of control between the SA stakeholders as the aircraft flies through the SA sectors.