Apart from the military hypersonic applications, high-sensitivity, high-bandwidth heat transfer instrumentation would be useful for general spatiotemporally accurate measurement of temperature and heat flux. The electronics could be used for measurements in turbomachinery (turbine blades) and for pulse detonation engines. One interesting commercial application where high-temperature heat flux measurement would be useful is fuel cell research, in which spatiotemporal heat flux is critical for performance evaluation. Another application is fire monitoring/control. As an example, it would be useful for naval ships to monitor the heat flux from weapons systems to adjoining areas. In aeronautics, heat flux sensors will help meet measurement challenges in providing validation and verification of CFD codes for heat transfer. Development of reliable turbulence modeling and CFD codes depend on making precise aerothermodynamic measurements of heat flux on various test models. NASA ARMD specifically cites prediction of transition and flow separation as high-priority objectives for the future of aeronautics, and heat transfer measurements is a key tool in providing insight into the dynamics of flow phenomena in SWTBLI regions. Specific applications of interest include SWTBLI at high enthalpies (flap forces and Scramjet), laminar/turbulent transition (crossflow instability), and unsteady separated/reattaching backshell flows on capsules.