Hybrid battery capacitors with high energy densities, improved power densities, long-term cycling, thermal stability, and low-cost will find applications in military and civilian communication equipment. Lithium ion battery technology is also being developed for electric and hybrid vehicles for replacement of toxic, lead-acid batteries. Hybrid battery capacitors could capture a significant portion of the secondary battery market for electric vehicles. The market for Li ion batteries is estimated to be $8 billion in 2010. Market growth is projected to be 10% per year, driven largely by use in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Materials that reduce cost, are environmentally friendly, and increase performance, such as the proposed hybrid battery capacitor chemistry, will capture a significant share of this market. Other large markets include energy for consumer electronic devices such as smart phones, laptops, and anywhere else where mobile power is needed. NASA is interested in advanced energy storage technologies for remote robotic systems. These systems cover all aspects of planetary surface operations. Examples of such operations include cargo transporters, power generation systems, inspection systems, site setup, emergency response, and payload offloading. NASA is emphasizing advanced cell chemistries with aggressive mass and volume performance and improved environmental robustness including temperature swings, solar events, micrometeorite bombardment, and abrasive planetary dust.