There are many challenges involved in deep-space exploration, but several of these can be mitigated, or even solved, by the development of a coating that reflects most of the Sun’s energy, yet still provides far-infrared heat emission. Such a coating would allow non-heat-generating objects in space to reach cryogenic temperatures without using an active cooling system. This would benefit deep-space sensors that require low temperatures, such as the James Webb Telescope focal plane array. It would also allow the use of superconductors in deep space, which could lead to magnetic energy storage rings, lossless power delivery, or perhaps a large-volume magnetic shield against galactic cosmic radiation. However, perhaps the most significant enablement achieved from such a coating would be the long-term, deep space storage of cryogenic liquids, such as liquid oxygen (LOX). In our Phase I NIAC study, we realized that a combination of scattering particles and a silver backing could yield a highly effective, very broadband, reflector that could potentially reflect more than 99.9% of the Sun’s irradiant power. We developed a sophisticated model of this reflector and theoretically showed that cryogenic temperatures could be achieved in deep space at one astronomical unit (1 AU) from the Sun. We showed how this new reflector could minimize heat conduction into the cryogenic tanks by coating the tank support struts. We then modelled a strawman architecture for a mission to Mars, using a coated LOX tank, coated struts, and infrared shields, to show that with our new coating it would be possible to maintain liquid oxygen passively. As a result of this work a patent application was generated and a paper published in Optics Letters . Our Phase II NIAC study had two primary goals, to develop a rigid version of the cryogenic selective surface proposed in Phase I and to test its performance in a simulated deep space environment. During the first year of the project the work concentrated on developing rigid tiles of BaF2, leading to tiles as large as 4 inches in diameter that transmitted very little visible light. In addition, during the first year a simulated deep space environment was created using a vacuum chamber and cryocooler. Using this facility, we showed that our BaF2 tiles absorbed less than ¼% of 375 nm radiation, a significant milestone for the work. During the second year of the project, we continued to develop the BaF2 tiles and we put significant effort into the construction of a deep space environment where we could project simulated solar radiation onto a sample. In the spring of 2018, we conducted our first solar simulator test with BaF2 and saw about 3.6% absorption. This is better than the state-of-the-art, but disappointing since predictions were for much lower absorption. We, erroneously, attributed this absorption to water retention by the BaF2, and decided to change materials. We considered several oxides and settled on yttrium oxide (Y2O3) for further development, because it is broadband, lightweight, has high index, and is hydrophobic. In July 2018 we conducted our first test of a rigid tile of Y2O3 in the simulated deep space environment and saw significant absorption again. We then realized that the issue was not water, but mid-wave radiation passing through the tile and being absorbed by the temperature sensor and the varnish used to hold it in place. We wrapped the sensor in silver foil, re-ran the test, and saw much lower absorption; only 1.1%. We then re-ran the BaF2 tile and saw 1.4% absorption. These values are almost adequate to maintain LOX in deep space, but we suspect that there are still issues in our test apparatus; we suspect thermocouple wires may be absorbing radiation. Further, post-NIAC, testing will better determine the performance of our new solar reflector. In order to restrict the size of this report, we will only briefly describe topics that we have previously published, allowing us to devote more time to new material. So minimal material will be devoted to modeling the material and deep space cryogenic storage, while longer sections will cover our material development, simulated deep space testing, and new applications. The Launch Service Program (LSP) requested that we explore ways to use this new coating to maintain LOX in low Earth Orbit and that work is described. In addition, the Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) Program asked us to explore ways to reduce the heat load for liquid hydrogen, resulting in the development of a spray-on version of the coating that should significantly improve in-space multi-layer insulation performance.