The primary non-NASA XNAV applications would be to provide primary or secondary navigation services for DoD missions. For MEO, GEO, HEO, and even cis-lunar missions, where GPS has limited availability, XNAV can provide primary autonomous navigation capability. In addition, XNAV could provide an essential backup navigation capability for missions that normally rely on GPS, but have a need for continuity of operations in the event of loss or denial of GPS. These applications were being actively studied through DARPA's first XNAV program in 2004-06, and key Microcosm team members had strong ties to that program. There are several promising NASA applications for XNAV, including missions beyond Jupiter as an enabling technology for autonomous navigation, potentially providing improved performance over standard DSN tracking capability for deep space missions, including the proposed Pioneer Anomaly and 500 AU missions. XNAV provides fully autonomous interplanetary navigation capability, potentially reducing the demands on DSN from increasing tracking requirements for future missions. XNAV can supplement DSN service and enhance DSN navigation performance. XNAV can also provide a backup navigation capability for manned and unmanned near-Earth, lunar, and Mars missions. Further, it can provide higher redundancy for manned missions. It can provide a highly accurate, independent time reference as well, for both Earth-orbiting and interplanetary missions.