To support this "high end-technology to Commercialization" business model, Thermacore has been and remains active in research and technology development programs, supporting DARPA, NASA, DOD, DOE and NSF. Military/Aerospace applications drive advances in our technology. This technology eventually gets applied to Military/Aerospace applications. Thermacore in turn also uses these advances that they helped develop to benefit their OEM customers and their products thereby creating jobs and benefiting the U.S. economy. High volume manufacturing of these advanced products helps to drive down the price of the product, which in turn comes back and benefits the Military/Aerospace sector with reduced costs. Maintaining this cycle is important to the Military/Aerospace sector, to Thermacore, to the local economy and to the overall U.S. economy. Passive Fuel Cell or Electrolysis Cell Heat Removal/ Thermal Control: Passive thermal control of individual cells within a fuel cell or electrolysis stack has the potential to eliminate actively pumped liquid coolant loops. A planar lightweight conductive heat pipe that is also electrically conductive is sought to passively remove the heat from the individual fuel cells or electrolysis cells within a cell stack. Spacecraft onboard electronics cooling is another area for application of the developed planar titanium heat pipe. Modern electronic components are small in size and generate heat fluxes that cannot be handled by pure conduction or direct forced convection cooling technologies. Planar heat pipe can be integrated with a Print Circuit Board (PCB) allowing it to stay at near uniform temperature. As a result several components can be cooled utilizing a single cooling device located at the edge of the PCB. Isothermal panels for heat radiation into space can be made using the same technology as well. High thermal conductivity and low effective density make these heat pipes applicable for RDU panels. Another important heat pipe advantage over the composite materials is CTE match with titanium round heat pipes.