AM Biotechnologies (AM) in partnership with Sandia National Laboratories will develop a Thioaptamer Diagnostic System (TDS) in response to Topic X10.01 Reusable Diagnostic Lab Technology. The TDS will quickly quantify clinically relevant biomarkers in flight using only microliters of virtually any complex sample. The system combines ambient-stable, long-shelf-life affinity agent assays with a handheld microfluidic gel electrophoresis affinity assay quantification technology. The system is easy to use, compatible with operation in microgravity, and designed to permit simultaneous quantification of 32 or more biomarkers from a single astronaut sample. Phase 1 of this project demonstrated that a thioaptamer assay used in the microfluidic instrument can quantify a specific biomarker in serum in the low nanomolar range. AM also successfully identified novel affinity agents to bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and demonstrated their use to detect BAP using the microfluidic instrument. Phase 2 will expand the number of ambient stable affinity agents and demonstrate a TDS prototype to NASA. AM anticipates that the TDS at the end of Phase 2 will be at TRL 4 to 5. In Phase 3, AM and Sandia will produce flight units for NASA research use on the International Space Station (ISS) as well as for diagnostic use on future long duration missions.