Analysis of commercial instrumentation markets shows that two of the three major growth areas for analytical instrumentation are real-time analysis and environmental monitoring, with projected annual growth rates of more than 15%. Our modular design approach for the miniaturized, low power gas chromatograph with pre-concentrator designed to resist high inertial loads will help it be adapted for field measurement needs in scientific, energy exploration and environmental monitoring applications where ruggedness and reliability are especially important. Thus, technical developments in the proposed program could have a significant market impact. In situ instrumentation for exploration of the solar system will require miniaturization and robustness for sampling under extreme conditions during planetary missions, such as high g-force atmospheric entry into the atmosphere of Venus where analysis of trace constituents, their isotope ratios and noble gas isotopes will be of great importance in understanding its geochemical history, and hard lander missions to the surface of Mars, Europa or other planetary bodies for astrobiology-related measurements. In the tradeoffs associated with mission design, instrumentation that can survive higher inertial loads allows propellant mass to be reduced, allowing an increase in the science payload or reduction in launch vehicle requirements. Thorleaf Research's proposed GC system addresses these needs in an innovative way, providing key enabling technology for mission planners. Our miniature GC will be especially useful when coupled to miniature mass spectrometers or ion mobility spectrometers currently under development at NASA. Since we will employ a modular design approach, this technology can also be adapted for NASA Space Exploration Initiative needs, including environmental monitoring in space habitats and process monitoring for the extraction of planetary resources such as volatiles in Lunar or Martian soils.