Innovative network architecture, protocols, and algorithms are proposed for both lunar surface networks and orbit access networks. Firstly, an overlaying architecture is proposed to seamlessly integrate lunar surface networks and orbit access networks. Secondly, for lunar surface networks, a network architecture based on hybrid mesh networking technologies is developed to support both fixed and mobile nodes on the lunar surface. It supports autonomous network coverage extension via ad hoc networking capability. Link adaptation algorithms provide automatic link configuration and ensure constant high link quality in a dynamic harsh environment. To support QoS of heterogeneous traffic types, a QoS oriented MAC protocol with scalable throughput performance is proposed. A hybrid routing protocol is also proposed to enhance routing efficiency and dramatically improve the reliability of ad hoc networking. Thirdly, for orbit access networks, a dynamic delay and disruption-tolerant networking (DTN) routing protocol is designed by integrating DTN and mobile ad hoc network (MANET) reactive routing. It is disruption tolerant and capable of supporting intermittent links. Finally, beacon based communications serve as the remedy to handle the emergent situation where neither lunar surface network nor orbit access is available.