The proposed technologies will be very beneficial to many DoD applications in military operations, such as battlefield communications and networking. The technologies of ultra-low miniaturized radio can find lots of applications on the non-government market. The most promising application area will be IEEE 802.11 radios and networks. Today IEEE 802.11 radio consumes too much power, which is currently a huge obstacle to integrating IEEE 802.11 radios into battery-powered devices such as cell phones, PDAs, laptops, palm PCs, and so on. The ultra-low power radios and networking protocols can also find potential applications in wireless sensor networks, vehicular networks, disaster-response networks, under-water networks, as they all demand ultra-low power radios and the supporting power-efficient protocols.