Lithium-ion batteries are slowly being introduced into satellite power systems, but their life still presents concerns for longer duration missions. Future NASA goals for retuning to the Moon and the manned exploration of Mars will demand increased specific energy and life from batteries. The properties of the graphite anode, and in particular the 'solid electrolyte interface' (SEI) layer, are key focus areas for advancement. Improving the lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery anode for both life and specific energy are the goals of this proposed research. Nanocomposite Carbon/Silicon anodes for Li-ion batteries will be produced that can be safely used at high charge/discharge rates, have high specific capacity and a long cycle life. Silicon nanoparticles will be contained in an engineered nanoporous carbon matrix and have room to expand and contract, thus preventing deleterious interphase formation. Phase I is expected to achieve a TRL of 2 and will demonstrate the performance and feasibility of the new anode. Phase II will achieve a TRL of 3 and will successfully scale up the synthesis as well as demonstrate improved performance with commercial cell prototypes.