We propose to develop electronics for operation at temperatures that range from -230o
C to +130o
C. This new technology will minimize the requirements for external heat sources that are currently necessary for operation of low-temperature electronics. Such technology would significantly improve reliability, performance, lifetime of electronics that are used for space applications, including satellites and space travel. This will be achieved through the development of unique circuits that are derived from novel physics based device and circuit modeling techniques and verified by experiment. Statistical methods will be employed to connect the resistive heating caused by individual devices to heating of the entire integrated circuit. Special algorithms will be further developed which allow for determination of operating conditions where the intrinsic operation of the circuit will allow for sufficient heat generation to eliminate carrier freeze-out and efficient operation of integrated circuits in environments ranging from -230o
C to +130o
C. For situations where intrinsic circuit resistive heating at cryogenic temperatures is insufficient to overcome carrier freeze out, we will design on-chip micro-heaters to provide direct heating to chips at the submicron device level. Thermal modeling of packaging will also be performed. With the intrinsic temperature control established, we will design specific single electron latchup immune circuits for application extreme environments.