Payload Systems Inc. proposes the Radiation Target Area Sample Environmental Chamber (RTASEC) as an innovative approach enabling radiobiologists to investigate the real-time, long-term radiation effects on living cells and tissues. Most current research into radiation effects on living cultures is limited to short duration radiation exposure because of the lack of in-situ equipment to provide the environment needed to support cell/tissue culture growth while in the radiation field. While these short-term experiments are vital to understanding cell and tissue culture reaction and adaptation to the radiation environment, long-term exposure at low dose rate is more likely to occur in space, and is more representative of long duration space missions of interest to NASA. We propose developing the RTASEC to enable long-term radiation exposure studies at the Brookhaven National Lab by providing the proper environmental conditions (such as temperature, relative humidity, gaseous oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration, and ambient lighting) needed for the study of a variety of cell/tissue cultures, including mammalian, plant, microbial cells, and tissues, in both suspension and attachment culture modes. The RTASEC can be used with a variety of existing culturing systems, including standard vials, wells, and flasks, such as the T-25, and NASA's rotary bioreactor. As an added benefit, the RTASEC will also be capable of supporting studies involving laboratory animals such as mice and rats.