The Offerers will build on their recent innovation of a microwave-induced route to the rapid functionalization, solubilization and reactive synthesis of carbon nanotube-ceramic and nanotube-polymer composites. The microwave process is environmentally friendly and results in the complete removal of metal catalysts used in the synthesis of the pristine nanotubes. These residual nanoscale metals are known to be toxic. The functionalization will be carried out via different routes so that the nanotubes can be rendered soluble in different solvents including water, alcohols, and nonpolar liquids. This will facilitate mixing with different polymer matrices for fabrication of composites, and also facilitate the formation of coatings and films. The reactive synthesis of ceramic and polymer composites involves the formation of the composite structure on the nanotube sidewalls via a microwave-assisted reaction. This will lead to the formation of a novel class of nanomaterials with unique structural, electronic and thermal properties.