A porous gel rather than a free-fluid is necessary on Earth to eliminate buoyancy-driven thermal convection. Although gel electrophoresis in its two-dimensional format is the universal laboratory separation method for resolving protein and macromolecular populations, it does not produce unaltered fractions. The success of gel systems for analytical electrophoresis does not satisfy the continuing need for large quantities of purified biological materials for research and production. Unfortunately new free-fluid electrophoresis systems are still limited by thermal convection. Electrophoretic Focusing has been invented to eliminate all sources of sample distortion and replace gel-based eletrophoresis systems. Electrophoresis has been a part of space payloads since Apollo 14 when a pharmaceutical company wanted an improved influenza vaccine. Continuous flow electrophoresis, the dominant free fluid separation technique of the times, is limited as a preparative technology by gravity-dependant thermal convection. During the next thirty years, more than a dozen experiments sponsored by industries in the U.S. and abroad were done in space. This activity peaked with a cooperative venture between McDonnell Douglas Aerospace and Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceuticals that designed and built the flight hardware on five Shuttle missions to make large quantities of a proprietary drug.