This Small Business Innovation Research program will develop a novel surface-enhanced Raman (SER) sensor that will perform real-time chemical analysis of urine. It will provide key physiologic information to monitor astronaut health and indicate appropriate preventative treatment. The Phase I program will demonstrate feasibility by establishing the ability of sol-gel chemistry to both select key chemicals: amino acids, biomarkers, drugs, and metabolites, and enhance their Raman signals. The Phase II program will design and build a prototype ?On-Demand Urine Analyzer? for ground-based measurement. This will include interfacing the SER sensor between a sampling system and a Raman instrument. The Phase II program will also design a low mass, low power version of this system (Figure 1) to be used on the International Space Station (ISS) and other vehicles employed during extended space flight missions (e.g. Mars expedition).