RED-Data2 has two main applications of benefit to NASA. The first is for reentry data to improve simulations and prediction models. This has value as NASA tackles challenges associated with orbital debris and end-of-life disposal, and for design of crewed space vehicles for survivability. The second application is for development of high temperature materials. Low-cost flight testing of materials allows for rapid qualification of materials in relevant environments for use on future government and COTS missions. The immediate application for RED-4U is to service government and commercial customers performing microgravity research on the ISS. Market research and workshops conducted by NASA and industry concluded that high-frequency payload return is an essential capability to drive high-volume research aboard the ISS. Longer-term NASA applications include sample return from asteroids or planetary bodies in support of robotic or human exploration. The Non-NASA commercial applications of RED-Data2 and RED-4U parallel those of the government applications. Reentry breakup data collected by RED-Data2 can assist space vehicle engineers in designing expendable satellites to reduce the hazards of debris, and in designing reusable spacecraft for survivability. Better knowledge of reentry phenomena can improve understanding of risk and lead to increased satellite operational lifetimes. The ability to flight test new materials can help fill a gap in materials characterization to enable development of hypersonic vehicles for crew and cargo transportation. Small payload return capability complements the business models of the emerging commercial space industry and the rapidly expanding small satellite sector. RED-4U could be used to return scientific experiment samples and other payloads from commercial orbital platforms such as those proposed by Bigelow Aerospace and Orbital Technologies, or for intermittent return from free-flying commercial transportation vehicles such as the SpaceX DragonLab, Orbital Sciences Corporation Cygnus, or the Sierra Nevada DreamChaser. Sample return is also a key element of plans of commercial companies seeking to mine the Moon or asteroids such as Moon Express, Planetary Resources, and Deep Space Industries.