For the past 4 decades electrical requirements on human space flight missions have been supplied by alkaline fuel cells (AFC). These systems are costly and aging rapidly and will soon be unsatisfactory for future NASA missions. Replacing these systems with solid oxide systems allows for increased fuel flexibility and compatibility with energy density fuels greatly expanding mission length. Increasing the power density of T-SOFCs is a vital step in achieving NASA's objective. Specifically, cells developed during this program can be further used in the following systems: 1. Energy storage and maintenance for the international space station 2. High altitude balloons 3. High altitude aircraft 4. Energy storage for future missions and settlement on the moon and Mars Summarized below are potential post applications. The customer needs we are addressing are: For DoD: Highly compact electric power sources for portable and wearable battlefield electronics; compact, quiet power units for battlefield communications stations and auxiliary power on military vehicles. For private-sector customers of high-value portable or mobile devices (e.g. UAV's, emergency lighting, and communications): A power unit with smaller size than possible with batteries, as well as quick refueling vs long recharge time. Versus combustion engines, the system provides for quiet, clean energy generation. Our potential initial key customers for 1 kW-class T-SOFC fuel cells and stacks include: 1. DoD programs for portable and wearable battlefield electronics prime contractors and subcontractors. 2. Private-sector makers of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV's), portable emergency lighting, and communications devices prime contractors and subcontractors. 3. Fuel cell power system manufacturers (buyers of freeze cast T-SOFC anodes, single cells, or stacks for integration into power units for the above applications).