The directly relevant NASA application includes a compact module, which can be integrated into the Orbiter's Environmental Control and Life Support System water reclamation systems to manage the respired carbon dioxide inside the spaceship and recycle water. Possible additional NASA applications include the production of fuels from indigenous materials (carbon dioxide) available on the surfaces of planets such as Mars. This will help, as future missions are required to utilize resources on Mars and will result in cost savings, as these materials will not have to be transported from earth. Carbon dioxide is a product of combustion, and has been identified as one of the principal factors behind global warming. Removal of CO2 from stack emissions by means of adsorption processes, followed by conversion into a useful organic product such as methanol, would have a large economic potential. The specific commercial product to be developed under the proposed program would be an electrochemical reactor that produces methanol. The methanol could be used as an industrial chemical, as a fuel for automobiles, or as a fuel for fuel cells. A system similar to the NASA system could be beneficial in other closed environments, such as submarines.