Potential NASA Commercial Applications: The direct application of long life, high current hollow cathodes is that of supporting NASA missions involving high power electric propulsion. This includes those high power missions, which are envisioned to support human operations in space as well as aggressive space science mission. For example, an energetic ion mitigation method could be directly integrated into the cathode design for the recently proposed Asteroid Retrieval Mission (ARM) which is currently baselined to use 4-5 10 kW Hall thrusters. It should be pointed out that the presence of energetic ions is not germane to high current cathodes though as was observed in the NSTAR long duration test. In this regard, the technology developed from this effort would also eliminate this failure mechanism for cathodes presumably over essentially all operating ranges.