This concept is also the most promising candidate to address the NASA Grand Challenge of Efficient In-Space Transportation over the next several decades. In the mid to far term, as defined in the In-Space Propulsion Systems Roadmap, Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) provides the most credible approach to provide improved propulsion performance. This technology would benefit Earth- and Planetary Orbital applications including orbital transfers and orbital debris mitigation, and would benefit science missions in Earth Observatory, Cis-Lunar, and interplanetary, as well as cargo missions in support of human architectures. This technology has potential direct application to future commercial missions requiring Elecltic Propulsion for Low Earth Orbit, NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) , and Group Earth Observations spacecraft platforms. This technology has potential direct application to future National Security Space missions.