1) In FY12 we completed the data collection and analysis for fifth and sixth studies in this project. 2) During this review period four presentations related to this project were completed at four international scientific meetings. These include: Bloomberg JJ, Peters BT, Mulavara AP, Brady RA, Batson CD, Miller CA, Cohen HS. Countermeasures to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. Major Problems of Space Life Sciences Conference, Moscow, Russia, October 20-21, 2011. Bloomberg JJ, Peters BT, Mulvara AP, Brady RA, Batson CD, Miller CA, Ploutz-Snyder RJ, Guined JR, Buxton RE, Cohen HS. Locomotion adaptation improves balance control, multitasking ability and reduces the metabolic cost of postural instability. NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, February 14–16, 2012, Houston, TX. Mulavara AP, Wood SJ, Cohen HS, Bloomberg JJ. Locomotor dysfunction after long-duration space flight and development of countermeasures to facilitate faster recovery. 39th Scientific Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), Mysore, India, July 14-22, 2012. Bloomberg JJ, Mulavara AP, Peters BT, Wood SJ, Reschke MF. Sensorimotor countermeasures: Improving performance during gravitational transitions. 84rd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association, Chicago Ill, May 12-16, 2013. 3) Seven manuscripts were published or are in press: Batson CD, Brady RA, Peters BT, Ploutz-Snyder RJ, Mulavara AP, Bloomberg JJ. Gait training improves performance in healthy adults exposed to novel sensory discordant conditions. Experimental Brain Research. 209(4): 515-24. 2011. Brady RA, Peters BT, Batson CD, Ploutz-Snyder RJ, Mulavara AP, Bloomberg JJ. Gait adaptability training is affected by visual dependency. Experimental Brain Research. 220: 1-9. 2012. Buccello-Stout RR, Cromwell RL, Bloomberg JJ, Whorton EB. Effects of sensorimotor adaptation training on head stability movement control in response to a lateral perturbation in older adults. The Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. In Press. Brady RA, Brian BT, Bloomberg JJ. Walking on an oscillating treadmill: Strategies of stride-time adaptation. Ecological Psychology. 24: 265-278. 2012. Mulavara AP, Ruttley T, Cohen HS, Peters BT, Miller C, Brady R, Merkle L, Bloomberg JJ. Vestibular-somatosensory convergence in head movement control during locomotion after long-duration space flight. Journal of Vestibular Research. 22(2):153-66. 2012. Cohen HS, Kimball KT, Wood SJ, Paloski WP, Bloomberg JJ, Mulavara AP. The role of posturography and locomotor testing in assessing performance in astronauts. Journal of Vestibular Research. 22(4): 191-6. 2012. Peters BT, Brady RA, Batson CD, Guined JR, Ploutz-Snyder RJ, Mulavara AP, Bloomberg JJ. Changes in locomotor stability, cognition, and metabolism during adaptation to walking in discordant sensory conditions. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, In Press.