As carbon fiber composites technology has improved, it has been envisioned that composites may be able to take the place of metal and hybrid alloys that have long been used in space applications. This is particularly true in carbon fiber composites for launch vehicles where a low-weight replacement must also be non-reactive, dimensionally stable and have the ability to withstand freeze/thaw cycles of re-fueling. Strength, low coefficient of thermal expansion and advanced macro scale architectures are necessary. The proposed production method is a key element to creating the carbon nanofibers needed. This project aims at innovative nanomaterial based polymeric composites with potential to supplant conventional carbon fiber reinforced polymeric (CFRP) composites as lightweight aerospace structural materials. Specifically the project addresses fundamental challenges in mass-manufacturing continuous and high-strength carbon nanofiber yarns, weaves and next-generation carbon nanofiber yarn-reinforced polymeric composites (CNFYRP). An improved lightweight CFRP structure has multiple commercial applications where there is a cost associated with moving any type of good or person, lowering the weight of the underlying device that is moving the object results in a tremendous cost savings. Three specific markets where the technology presents the best opportunity are the 1) commercial space travel, 2) Air travel/cargo, and 3) passenger vehicles/ground shipping industries which represent multi-billion dollar markets individually. AxNano has assembled a world-class Team including recognized leaders in composite design, modeling, polymer chemistry and advanced CNF manufacturing to make sure the advancements made in this program will meet current and future composites application needs for the Aerospace, wind power, and transportation industries to reduce weight, drive down costs, and ultimately reduce end product environmental impact through lower emissions.