Lithium-Ion batteries have been a main source of energy for many aerospace applications over the past decade. Future space missions are facing a number of challenging requirements, including significant increase in specific energy, approaching 500 Wh/kg, and energy density of 700 Wh/l at cell level. Compared to state-of-the-art technology today, a reduction in mass and volume are necessary, along with improvements for functioning in harsh space environments and an increase in reliability. Yardney Technical Products, Inc., a world leader in cutting-edge battery technology, in collaboration with Purdue University, proposes developing lithium-sulfur battery technology. This will have a cathode based on a novel, sulfur mesoporous carbon composite. In addition, the proposed Phase I research will include lithium dendrite suppressive electrolyte for a significant improvement in safety.