Breakthrough battery cell technologies that far exceed the specific energy and energy density of current state-of-the-art lithium-ion cell technologies are required to achieve NASAs far-term energy storage goals for human and robotic missions. The high-voltage abuse-tolerant lithium ion batteries to be developed in this project will have the critical reliability, safety, high energy density, and long lifetime for mission critical NASA space applications. The high energy density and abuse-tolerant lithium ion batteries have numerous applications in military, consumer electronics, energy industry, and transportation industry. Military applications include soldier power, auxiliary power such as in a silent watch application and energy storage for a microgrid. Commercial applications include personal electronics such as cellular phones, laptop computers, power tools and transportation in an electric, hybrid electric vehicle or in aviation.