High specific impulse, high power Hall thrusters will be key for planetary exploration and efficient cargo delivery to Mars. Project Prometheus would significantly benefit from the long-life, high power Hall thrusters afforded by the proposed channel insulators. Long-life, high power Hall thrusters would be useful in geosynchronous communications satellites to reduce propellant mass and as primary propulsion in deep space scientific missions. The United States Air Force has many missions that would benefit from small, low-cost satellites. Commercial applications include communications and imaging satellites, companions to large satellites to provide surveillance and close-up inspection capabilities, such as to monitor and assure proper deployment of solar panels, antennae and other appendages.