X-ray astronomy is highly dependent upon focusing optics as illustrated by the profound influence that results from the Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku observatories are having upon astrophysics. The next generation of NASA Physics-of-the-Cosmos missions will build on the discoveries of current missions and will take us to new stages of discovery. X-ray measurements address many of the major scientific objectives of NASA. They involve the entire range of X-ray emitting objects from the most distant supermassive black holes to planets and comets in our own solar system. Thus, X-ray astronomy will continue to be an important activity of NASA. Future X-ray explorer missions, such as a successor to Nu-STAR, would benefit greatly from the improved resolution of the optics discussed above. Future X-ray astronomy missions such as Smart-X will require large effective area and will utilize a segmented optics approach. Our technology studies to fabricate lighter weight substrates may be useful not only for the full-shell optics but also for substrates which can be used in the segmented optics of such future missions. While the development focuses on X-ray optics, significant possibilities exist for multi-spectral systems (i.e. UV, visible, infrared). These applications can be applied to the area of defense telescopes, commercial space exploration and medical imaging. The proposed innovation of layered material assembly for supporting the precise X-ray optical surface can be applied to other applications which require surface conforming ability, large area deposition, material versatility, and cost effective, non-vacuum manufacturing. The hybrid manufacturing technology being investigated in this program combining metal alloy plating with ceramic or composite backing technology can be contemplated for expanded applications in DoD and commercial sectors. This methodology can also be used to fabricate novel projectile systems such as graded liners for gun-barrels with smooth internal surface with light weight backing. It can enable 3D forming of complex hydraulic cylinders, cavities, in general aviation systems. Thermal spray can also be used to augment general plating technologies by adding material a much higher rate and speed so as to minimize the amount of plating time required. Additionally, the advances made through this program have the potential to influence a broad sector of current thermal spray related applications including manufacturing of tubular solid oxide fuel cells, large gas separation membranes, thermal barrier coatings, chromium-plate replacement coatings etc.