The on-chip plasmonic hyperspectral MWIR/LWIR imaging system enables hyperspectral MWIR/LWIR sensing and imaging on a single chip with substantially reduced device size, weight and power consumption and improved system reliability for portable and small satellite remote sensing applications. This on-chip hyperspectral MWIR/LWIR imaging system will significantly reduce the costs of NASA's Earth mission in measurement of Earth's resources and its environment as well as land use in agriculture, such as carbon-based trace gases, CH4, and CO2, mapping of Ozone (O3) layers, as well as soils, and understanding of the Earth system and its response to natural and human-induced changes. The on-chip hyperspectral MWIR/LWIR imaging technology with high sensitivity and high spectral-resolution is particularly useful in portable and standalone sensing and imaging for many critical military and homeland security applications such as night vision, missile early launch detection and remote chemical sensing and detection for biological/chemical warfare. Commercial markets include leak detection, chemical process control, remote chemical sensing for atmospheric pollution and drug monitoring, IR spectroscopy, and medical diagnoses. The technology developed herein should considerably accelerate the commercialization of ultra-compact portable hyperspectral IR camera technologies to meet the potential needs of the huge defense and commercial market.