Our non-contact optical instrument will rapidly measure complete elemental compositions (~30 elements simultaneously) and key isotopic abundances in planetary surface materials. The ratios of C, H, N, O isotopes will provide important constraints on the history of processes on Mars, particularly related to past organic and water activities. We aim at the key life-forming elements but our technology can be further extended to other chemical species. This technology is directly relevant to several NASA objectives for Mars: (i) characterization of geological features contributing to deciphering geological history; (ii) determination of surface chemical composition including elements known to be building blocks for life; (iii) characterization of organic compounds and potential biomarkers in representative bedrock and regolith; (iv) identification of potential chemical and isotopic biosignatures in rocks and regolith; (v) characterization of the local environment, the state and cycling of water and CO2, and the near-surface distribution of hydrogen. NRC's decadal survey recommended a plan leading to Mars Sample Return. As part of this program, there is a need to conduct in situ analysis to select the best and most varied set of samples to return to Earth. Our proposal is particularly focused on Mars but highly relevant to applications on the Moon, other planets, their moons (Titan, Europa, Io, etc.) and comets. Similar studies are very important to NASA's Earth Science missions. Our concept of an integrated instrument capable of both elemental and isotopic measurements has a significant potential for commercial applications and infusion into other Government agencies, academia and industrial markets. LAMIS is poised to speed up, to simplify and to make isotopic analysis more affordable than at present. Multiple applications are anticipated in the nuclear power industry, medical diagnostics and therapies, forensics, homeland security, carbon sequestration, natural gas and oil exploration, ecological and agronomical studies. Carbon isotopes are indicative of primary bio-productivity and energy cycling and are important for the understanding of biochemistry. The biological enhancement of 12C over 13C can be up to 5%, and is measurable by LAMIS. Carbon isotopes are used in soil difference studies; various crops studies (rice, wheat, barley, cotton etc); forest studies; studies of vegetation and different ecosystems. Such studies include isotopic measurements of soils, flora, fauna, air, groundwater and the results of human activities. The stable isotope 15N is often used as a marker, particularly to track the efficiency of fertilizers in agronomy: how plants uptake the fertilizer from roots to leaves and how much of it being lost. In animals and humans, stable isotopes are used to study host-parasite relationship. Measurement of the D/H and oxygen isotopic ratios is essential in paleoclimatology, material sciences, biological and medical research.