An MVP-SEM will provide the ISS with an additional on-orbit analytical tool which will allow for increased capacity of on-orbit analysis, thereby reducing the number of samples that must be returned to Earth. The variable-pressure SEM is a cross-cutting tool for in situ topographical imaging and compositional X ray fluorescence mapping of uncoated conductive and non-conductive samples useful to multiple disciplines, including nondestructive imaging of materials (inorganic and organic), surface contamination studies, and scientific analyses. This tool would also provide the ISS with a new capability for maintaining and understanding ISS structures (e.g., space weathering) and for scientific studies, thus reducing the required number of sample returns to the Earth. For Mars exploration, a variable-pressure SEM will allow for the simultaneous study of organisms and the geological substrates they might live on, provide shape and size-scale information, detail how they interact with their environment, and impart context for other studies that provide detailed chemical information. Morphological and chemical characterization of lunar regolith in laboratories on Earth has been routinely accomplished using a SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Our SEM would allow similar analysis in situ. A miniature variable pressure SEM would support both Medium (New Frontiers) and Large (Max-C) type missions, as outlined in the Planetary Science Decadal Survey 2013-2022. Scanning electron microscopes are one of the most indispensable laboratory tools for making analytical measurements. The market for electron microscopes is expected to exceed $4 billion by 2017, and the clear trend in the market is a shift to smaller, lighter, and more portable units. Our miniature variable pressure scanning electron microscope will be uniquely positioned to benefit from growth in this segment of the market due to its small size, low power, small mass, and excellent measurement capabilities. The fact that our system will facilitate measurements in support of biology and biotechnology, Earth science, physical science, human research, technology development, and will also facilitate assessment of the health of materials and structures, suggests that potential commercial applications for the technology are wide and deep.