NASA applications include, in-space fabrication of replacement optics, compact optical assemblies, high performance optics, on-demand production and prototyping of complex optics, and new optics techniques enabled by transformational optics. The design and fabrication of optics has not progressed significantly over 200 years. Several factors complicate the requirements placed on conventional lenses. The image is typically required to be planar (for example in film and electronic detectors), the lens must have the same optical properties over a range of optical wavelengths, and the image plane required has become quite extensive. This has driven up the production cost dramatically, significantly extended the development time of optical assemblies, and introduced substantial weight penalty. The value of the innovation is best realized in high performance systems, where the size, weight, and cost are necessarily dominated by the optics, by allowing large, complex, and thin planar optical films, including those produced using roll-to-roll methods, the innovation also benefit television displays, solid-state lighting, and 3D imaging applications.