NASA is always looking for technologies that can be used for interplanetary transport of heavy payloads. In initial studies to find a system capable of delivering heavy payloads to the surface of Mars, a conceptual vehicle that achieves orbit via aerocapture, cools down there, and then enters, descends and lands on Mars' surface is proposed. The proposed Thermal Protection System will achieve the mass efficiency necessary to enable and satisfy the mass requirement of this mission. The novel concept is applicable to other mission scenarios with extreme heating during a finite time. It is also applicable to multiple finite-time heating scenarios because of the unique multilayer design that can be optimized for the given requirements.