NASA is always looking for technologies that can be used for interplanetary transport of heavy payloads. In initial studies to find a system capable of delivering heavy payloads to the surface of Mars, a conceptual vehicle that achieves orbit via aerocapture, cools down there, and then enters, descends and lands on Mars' surface is proposed. The proposed Thermal Protection System will achieve the mass efficiency necessary to enable and satisfy the mass requirement of this mission. The novel concept is applicable to other mission scenarios with extreme heating during a finite time. It is also applicable to multiple finite-time heating scenarios because of the unique multilayer design that can be optimized for the given requirements. The proposed ablative bi-layer composite thermal protection system will be suitable for many applications with severe heat load requirements. Due to the unique fabrication and bonding/assembly methods to be developed, the structure will have good machinability in the pre-ceramic form, minimal required machining due to near-net shape casting and minimal volume shrinkage, and minimal outgassing of bonding agents from the integrated bonding approach. All of these factors and the low materials and equipment cost contribute to lower overall manufacturing cost. Additionally, the focus on near-net shape forming reduces assembly difficulties and expedites the integration process into subsystems and systems. Potential applications for this technology include high temperature structures such as hypersonic vehicles, rocket nozzles, various space structures, and re-entry vehicle parts. Other commercial products that would benefit from this technology include industrial high temperature furnaces, brake pads in aircraft or racecars.