PICA and materials of its class are currently under development worldwide, including a Carbon-Resin by the European Space Agency (ESA). The largest current scheduled user of PICA-class ablators is SpaceX which utilizes a PICA-X variant in the Dragon spacecraft for earth re-entry. This environment is toward the lower end of heat fluxes and ablation to be encountered during a re-entry procedure. All private and public space endeavors that require re-entry heat shielding can benefit from the technology developed under this program which can augment and improve modeling, test ablators in real-world conditions and perform health monitoring roles in test articles. Mass and heat dissipation performance are critical to thermal protection systems for many NASA objectives both in spaceflight and hypersonic flight. Low-density carbon phenolics perform well in both of these critical parameters. Phenolic Impregnated Ceramic Ablator (PICA) was developed by NASA/Ames in the mid-nineties and flown successfully in the Stardust mission. This particular material is of active interest to NASA, with its use in the upcoming Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) and the possibility of its selection for multiple future missions. Real-time recession and heat flux measurements will support continued development of this class of ablators as well as mission specific implementation. Ablator performance models can be enhanced with higher fidelity temperature data and used for faster development with decreasing cost. Future programs are also in need of PICA and PICA class ablators. Two of the New Frontiers Program proposals incorporate PICA for sample return missions including MoonRise, a Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample Return Mission which would place a lander in a broad basin near the moon's south pole and return approximately two pounds of lunar materials for study and Osiris-Rex which would rendezvous and orbit a primitive asteroid, returning more than two ounces of material from the asteroid's surface.