In-situ resource utilization using bioleaching methods to derive metals directly from the local regolith has the potential to provide an excellent source of raw materials for production processes in future settlement projects on the moon, Mars, or asteroids. As biomining organisms are self-replicating machines, they could be transported in small quantities and allowed to reproduce inside an extra-terrestrial bioreactor or other bioleaching site. The proposed investigation is relevant to NASA goals as follows: Several NASA programs are interested in ISRU options for reducing mission resource requirements by using available in situ resources. This project will also address NASA goals of preparing for human exploration of Mars by designing and implementing a human mission with acceptable cost, risk and performance. Although this phase 1 STTR starts on moon simulants, Mars simulants are proposed as part of the intended phase 2 of our project. Similarly to moon experiments, Martian studies could aid in producing a bioreactor that makes effective use of martian resources, increasing the level of self sufficiency of Mars operations, which will be even more critical as the distance to Mars is far greater than any previously-attempted manned space mission. In NASA's Strategic Plan, the strategic goal no. 1 is to "extend and sustain human activities across the solar system," and we believe that biological ISRU will be an essential component of this.