In-situ resource utilization using bioleaching methods to derive metals directly from the local regolith has the potential to provide an excellent source of raw materials for production processes in future settlement projects on the moon, Mars, or asteroids. As biomining organisms are self-replicating machines, they could be transported in small quantities and allowed to reproduce inside an extra-terrestrial bioreactor or other bioleaching site. The proposed investigation is relevant to NASA goals as follows: Several NASA programs are interested in ISRU options for reducing mission resource requirements by using available in situ resources. This project will also address NASA goals of preparing for human exploration of Mars by designing and implementing a human mission with acceptable cost, risk and performance. Although this phase 1 STTR starts on moon simulants, Mars simulants are proposed as part of the intended phase 2 of our project. Similarly to moon experiments, Martian studies could aid in producing a bioreactor that makes effective use of martian resources, increasing the level of self sufficiency of Mars operations, which will be even more critical as the distance to Mars is far greater than any previously-attempted manned space mission. In NASA's Strategic Plan, the strategic goal no. 1 is to "extend and sustain human activities across the solar system," and we believe that biological ISRU will be an essential component of this. Bioleaching organisms could potentially provide a relatively hands-off approach to mining extraterrestrial objects for valuable and rare metals, and biomining technology would be especially promising to resource-constrained space-based mining operations. Biomining tools could also be a useful resource for privatized space settlement projects, providing the same raw materials they could in a NASA-based facility. While biological organisms are used to a significant extent in some terrestrial mining operations, their cellular functions are still relatively poorly-understood both biochemically and genetically. As this proposed research will contribute to the understanding of certain organisms used in biomining, it will add to the current state of knowledge surrounding these organisms, and be especially useful in developing technologies for mining on terrestrial substrates similar to the extra-terrestrial regoliths studied.