NASA has identified a critical need for pioneering advances in battery technology to give high performance, low-weight, durable and long-life power sources for future missions. In this Phase I proposal, CFX Battery, Inc. and Georgia Institute of Technology propose the chemical conversion of micron-sized, nano-structured templates available from renewable resources into functional electrode materials. In nature, diatom species form complex cell wall structures made of silica through biological self-assembly. We will take advantage of these intricate structures to generate hierarchically-ordered functional nanocrystalline oxide architectures, and investigate the application of these materials in electrochemical devices. We intend to establish that electrodes fabricated from these nanostructures are innovative materials that display improved electrochemical performance compared to traditional electrodes. This will enable us to address the significant increases in energy capacity, power capability and cycling stability necessary to meet the NASA requirements for advanced Li-ion battery technology. Our manufacturing strategy is conceptually-straightforward, rapid, scalable and amenable to commercialization.