Rechargeable batteries continue to represent a strong growth market, with worldwide sales of $36 billion in 2008 anticipated to expand to $51 billion by 2013. This decade has already witnessed a transition in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technology. At present, Ni-MH batteries are used in HEVs, although it is expected that lithium-ion batteries will be implemented in HEVs by 2010 as demand increases. Rechargeable batteries will continue to be the energy storage system of choice for portable electronics and power tools for the next five years, as well expanding into new markets in motor vehicles and large scale renewable energy systems. Regardless of application, energy and power density and lifetime drive rechargeable battery research, and high-performance Li-ion batteries based on the nanostructured materials proposed here will be well-positioned to compete aggressively in all of these markets. NASA is interested in innovative rechargeable cell chemistries and advanced electrode materials that will enhance the performance of high-power/high-rate cells in advanced battery systems for use in Exploration Mission applications, including power for Landers, Rovers, and extravehicular activities. The successful application (over the lifetime of both Phase I and Phase II proposals) of biotemplated nanostructured materials in electrochemical cells will provide aggressive performance improvements beyond current state-of the-art lithium-ion systems by achieving the following goals: (i) Specific energy (cell level)> 300 Wh/kg at C/2, (ii) Energy density (cell level)> 600 Wh/l at C/2, and (iii) Calendar life >5 years and cycle life of 500 cycles at 100% depth of discharge for use in future NASA missions.