Due to their high capacitance and high power, ultracapacitors can be effective energy storage devices for a wide variety of applications. In low-voltage configurations of 5.5 volts or less, ultracapacitors have applications in consumer electronics, such as backup power supplies for memories, microcomputers and clocks. In higher voltage configurations, ultracapacitors have opportunities in electrical power load leveling, battery augmentation and pulse discharge applications, such as in wireless communication products. Other battery augmentation applications are possible in electric and fuel cell vehicles in which ultracapacitors could be used to boost acceleration and regulate braking energy. Since ultracapacitors can be recharged many times faster than rechargeable batteries and through many thousands of cycles, ultracapacitors have applications in rechargers for such products as power tools, cordless phones, flashlights, electric shavers and other rechargeable devices. Ultracapacitors are also expected to be useful in a wide range of robotic applications. Ultracapacitors, also known as electrochemical capacitors or electrical double-layer capacitors, are energy storage devices which combine the high energy storage potential of batteries with the high energy transfer rate and high recharging capabilities of capacitors. Ultracapacitors can have hundreds of times more energy density than conventional capacitors and thousands of times higher power density than batteries and may be used to power Lunar surface system vehicles. Ultracapacitors can be used as independent power sources or in a hybrid mode with rechargeable batteries to power Lunar surface mobility systems and/or portable electronic equipment such as cameras, camcorders and power tools.