The RCD provides indication of the presence of E. coli within 30 minutes of sampling, with minimal consumable hardware. The RCD reduces crew time by eliminating the need to unstow, check, and restow a test kit after 2 days, and again after 5 days. Unlike the Water Microbiology Kit (WMK), there is no need for a syringe of growth media, and the RCD microbial capture device is smaller and lighter than that of the WMK. Another advantage of the rapid test is that if an E. coli infection is suspected in space, potential sources can be tested, and results determined quickly, so additional infections can be avoided. This technology can be used on the ISS and on future long-duration spaceflight missions. The combined goals of this proposal will have a significant impact on terrestrial water quality management and on current diagnostic capability for detection of waterborne disease outbreaks, especially in areas that are currently not well served. Enhanced access to in-the-field diagnosis of locally relevant diseases will improve sanitation among populations in resource-limited settings. The technology will also promote better understanding of the epidemiology of emerging zoonotic and pandemic pathogens in real-time, will significantly reduce the response time to serious outbreaks, and could help combat any potential future biological threats.