The non-NASA applications are significant as fresh water demands are becoming a serious problem at many regions of the planet. The technology generated here may very well help improve the efficiency and/or portability of terrestrial-based water recovery systems. Contemplated long-duration missions to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids, and Mars will be mass-constrained. The successful development and application of NafionREG
membrane technology to spacecraft water processing will lead to improvements in the efficiency, robustness, and reliability of these systems. These improvements will in turn translate directly into safety improvements and mass reductions.