The design and qualification of entry systems for planetary exploration largely rely on computational simulations. However, state-of-the-art modeling capabilities introduce substantial limitations in providing accurate and reliable predictions for aerothermodynamic flow environments of such entry, decent, and landing vehicles. These challenges are attributed to (i) the complexity of coupled multiphysical processes; (ii) limited experimental data for model validation; and (iii) the absence of advanced numerical algorithms and physical models for the accurate and efficient simulation of aerothermodynamic flows. By addressing these issues, the overall objective of this research is the development of advanced high-order numerical methods and high-fidelity physical models for the reliable prediction of aerothermodynamic flows that are relevant to hypersonic and atmospheric entry vehicles. Novel programming paradigms will be used for accelerating multiphysics simulation codes on emerging heterogeneous computing architectures. Combined, these modeling capabilities will provide improved predictions of heat-transfer, particle-laden reacting flows, and hypersonic environments to support the development of next-generation entry, descent, and landing systems.