NASA funded: Shock layer radiation modeling improvements have directly impacted Osiris-Rex, MPCV, InSight and Mars 2020 missions. In particular, ESM researchers identified and quantified the impact of backshell radiation for these missions for the first time. ESM staff also worked with the MEDLI Post-flight team to quantify the impact of CO2 radiation on returned flight data, showing that this effect could explain much of the difference between computational predictions and returned flight data in the stagnation region. ESM researchers also used data collected in the EAST and subsequent model development to propose the first substantive update to Orion shock layer radiation margin policy since the beginning of the project; these changes were accepted by the Program and included in the updated aerothermal database for EM-1. ESM and MPCV partnered on the analysis of radiation data returned from EFT-1 flight radiometer. NASA unfunded: Deliver new aerothermal capabilities which will increase fidelity and reduce uncertainty, margin and system mass for TPS design for future missions. Shock layer radiation is a heating and uncertainty (margin) driver for many proposed NASA missions, and improvements to our simulation capability will increase reliability and reduce mass. OGA: The phenomena of shock layer radiative heating is unique to NASA, however ESM advances in underlying spectroscopic data will impact DoE and DoE analysis capability for other applications. In particular, NASA and AFOSR have partnered in the development of improved potential energy surfaces for key thermochemical reactions in high temperature air. Commercial: All of EDL Modeling and Simulation is of direct benefit to commercial space. Commercial companies generally rely on NASA developed tools for in-house EDL analysis (including aerothermodynamics), and thus directly benefit from improvements to those tools. NEQAIR in particular is a released code and is available to all interested parties. Nation: EDL Modeling and Simulation is an enabling capability for spaceflight. Our ability to conduct larger and more complex missions is limited first and foremost by cost, which is a strong function of how well we understand the required system performance. By developing higher fidelity, more accurate predictive M&S capability we enable the customer to make better informed decisions and to better understand performance limits of current and future technologies. A natural consequence is increased reliability, lower mass, and a better understanding of when a fundamentally new technology is in fact required to meet mission objectives. A key software product of this effort, NEQAIR, won NASA Software of the Year for 2015, in large part because of its potential application to fields well beyond its current use for NASA spacecraft design.