While the protective qualities of activated carbon have been enhanced by the addition of specific metal salts, activated carbon technology has changed little over the last 60 years. In this Phase I, Agave BioSystems and the Universities Space Research Association, propose to develop next generation smart adsorbents using novel carbon nanotube (CNT)-based structures for the adsorption and destruction of potentially toxic air contaminants. Since CNTs have extremely high surface area, can be readily modified with metals or functional groups, and can function without the mass transfer limitations of traditional activated carbon, they are an ideal material for integration into spacecraft air handling systems. Our goal is to build upon the unique structural and chemical nature of carbon nanotubes to generate a new generation of smart adsorbents. The exceptionally high mass transfer properties of these in situ grown carbon nanotubes should reduce problems of current filters such as pore clogging or limited accessible material.